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Dibutylone, a novel synthetic cathinone exhibits high potency and affectivity

Dibutylone has emerged as a psychedelic drug belonging to cathinone, amphetamine and phenethylamine classes. It has structural homology to methylone which has gained fame a designer substance used in preparation of plant food as well as bath salts.

Dibutylone dubbed as booty or ‘beauty’ is found to be a stimulant as a cathinone. It has many adjunct names as ‘bk-DMBDB” and others. It has the IUPAC name as 1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-(dimethylamino)butan-1-one. Dibutylone formulation has a chemical symbol as C13H17NO3 with a molar mass of about 235.28 grams.

All cathinones have a core element of phenylamine in their structure and harbor many alkyl groups at alpha carbon as a form of substitution. The beta carbon of the fundamental structure also has a ketone group. Cathinones are then modified into various designer drugs via alterations at the aryl ring and the amine groups.

Dibutylone possesses a substitution on MDMA aryl ring via a dioxyl group. There is further alteration of two methyl groups at the tertiary amine apart from an ethyl group substitution at alpha carbon.

It is often conjectured that the clinical manifestations of dibutylone would be similar to cathinones.

It has been a presumption that butylone has dibutylone as a prodrug. Furthermore it has structural resemblance with a renowned cathinone as methylone.

Cathinones function by enhancing serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine serum levels via inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitters reuptake and by stimulating their release but only slightly. High levels of the neurotransmitters localized at synapse incur feelings of contentment and euphoria. Reward pathways are also activated, enhancing motivation, for dopamine is a pro reward pathway substance.

Cathinone along with all its modified designer drugs cause central nervous system stimulation manifesting as euphoria, high mental alertness and rarely psychosis. Peripheral nervous system is also targeted by the cathinones as mydriatic effect, palpitations, high blood pressure and reddening of eyes. It may symptomatically present as flushing, tachycardia, pain in abdomen, perspiration, anxiety and restlessness as acute effects.

Chronically the drug can simulate symptoms of affective psychotic disorders and can ensue in paranoia. It can also affect erection though only briefly and can cause nauseous nuisance.

Dibutylone gives a specific odor that whiffs like that of citric acid. This drug like others belonging to its class is available in powder formulation which has a brightly white color and is reportedly puffy. Individuals who have consumed this drug state that its sudden effects on emotions and mental state mimic that of ectasy, MDMA, often described as a ‘rush’.

Idiosyncrasy and dosage of the drug would define the clinical manifestations of dibutylone therefore initially a small amount of the drug should be started to monitor the tolerance level of the ingested drug. Oral ingestion is associated with a long time to stimulate the nervous system so redosing after oral intake should be avoided even if no effect is apparent. These drugs induce a compulsive effect to redose and its toxicity is accelerated when taken together with alcohol.

Although Butylone has been predominantly banned all across the globe with exemption of a few countries, dibutylone is labeled as legal in majority of the countries.